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Punctuation Pattern Sheet

1. 

Independent clause

 .

 Example: Fred went to the store.

 

 

2.

 

Independent clause

 

;

 

independent clause

 

.

Example: Fred went to the store; his wife followed him.

 

3.  

 

Independent clause

 

; therefore,

 

independent clause

 

.

; however,

; nevertheless,

; consequently,

; furthermore,

; moreover,

(etc.)

Example: Fred intended only to buy milk at the store; however, his wife reminded him that he also needed to buy cheese. 

4.

Independent clause

, and

independent clause

.

, for

, nor

, but

, or

, yet

, so

Example: Fred went to the store to buy milk, but his wife reminded him that he also needed to buy cheese.

 Memory Helper You can remember these words, coordinating conjunctions, with the saying FANBOYS: 

For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So

5.

Clause, phrase, or word

, 

clause,   phrase, or word

 ,   

clause, phrase, or word

.

Example: Fred, a good husband, agreed to purchase the cheese. 

 

6.         If

 

 dependent clause

 

, 

 

independent clause

 

.

Because

Since

When

While

Although

After

(etc.)

Example: While he walked home, Fred ate the cheese and drank the milk.

 

7.

 

Independent clause

 

   if      

 

dependent clause

 

.

because

since

when

while

although

after

(etc.)

ExampleFred ate the cheese and drank the milk after he went shopping.

 

 

8.

 

Independent clause

 

:

 

A, B, and C

 

.

ExampleFred needed several items at the grocery store: milk, cheese, butter, and eggs.

      9.     ?_____________________," she said.

He said, "_________________________."

"____________," she said, "________________."

 Example: "I am going to the store," she said.

He said, "I am going to the store."

 "I am going to the store," she said, "I need some milk."

 Prepared by Bryan Shuman, Tutorial Services, Lansing Community College, Lansing, MI , 1995.  Based on Teaching 1 on 1, Muriel Harris, 1986.

Tutoring Services at Lansing Community College

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Fax: (517) 483-1222
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